Motivation is a vital component of school success. In Part 2, we looked at intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and found that intrinsic motivation in our students is stronger and longer lasting, in that there is a true interest in mastery of academic content.
Various factors that can affect motivation are:
- How a person values the importance of a task
- A person’s emotional reaction to tasks given
- Goal setting
- Intrinsic and extrinsic motivators
- Self-efficacy (how one views oneself) and a person’s belief in his or her ability to perform a task
This week, let’s look at an interesting find in the literature that will help us better motivate our students. Various studies have looked at differences in student task persistence when teachers take two different approaches. The two approaches are:
1. Praise the student’s intellect (e.g. “You are really smart in math.”)
2. Praise the student’s effort (e.g. “I like the way you worked on that math problem and the effort you used to solve the problem.”)
What were the results of the two approaches?
Students task persistence increased when effort was praised, and decreased when intellect was praised.
On a personal level, I can understand one reason for the results. When I was occasionally told I was “smart” in school, I had a secret fear the teacher might find out that I was not that smart after all. Therefore, if I didn’t make a mistake, I would keep my teacher’s belief in my “smartness.” Also, if something does not come naturally, but you have to work at it, you might feel this means you are not smart. Thus, a person might avoid more challenging tasks.
Teaching tip: Praise effort and student growth over intellect–it’s a better motivator!
Motivation is a vital component of school success. This week, let’s look at two different types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic.
Intrinsic motivation as relates to student learning is learning for learning’s sake, where the student has a desire to learn and master academic tasks. When a student is intrinsically motivated there may be moments of frustration, such as when tackling a difficult problem, but the overall tone is positive and the student has a curiosity and interest in learning and mastering content.
Extrinsic motivation as relates to student learning is when a student learns as a means to an end. Extrinsic motivation is typically driven by external rewards or avoidance of punishment. Examples of rewards are: gold stars on your paper, money earned for good grades, ice cream parties, prizes, getting good grades to get into college. Examples of extrinsic motivators that are in the form of punishment are: being placed on restriction for certain grades, getting privileges taken away such as video games or television, missing recess at school, missing out on key activities, etc.
What do we know about students and intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation?
- Typically, intrinsic motivation is the highest for younger students and the lowest for older students; studies looking at third to ninth graders showed intrinsic motivation to be the highest with the third graders and gradually declining as students got older. (One of the reasons why we love those sweet young eager learners!)
- A couple downsides of extrinsic motivators are: when they are discontinued the behavior being motivated can disappear, and they may also teach that the behavior is not worthwhile in and of itself.
- Students who have a genuine interest (an intrinsic motivator) in a subject maintain longer lasting motivation to do well and learn about a subject for the sake of learning versus students who are interested because the learning is made fun through a game or exciting lesson plan. (That does not mean it is okay to have boring lesson plans!)
Researchers point out that for most things we do, it is a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. For example, we typically pick a major in college that we like, but we also want the benefit of the degree; both motivate us.
Dr. Temple Grandin, who is a leading animal scientist on the spectrum, was wisely told by her high school teacher that she had to pass the subjects she was not interested in so she could go to college and learn about the things she was interested in—and this worked!
We will talk more about motivation in Part 3!
We have all had students who have or who have not been motivated to do well in school. As such, I thought we should take a closer look at motivation.
What is student motivation? Student motivation can be defined as a general expectancy that includes:
- Students’ belief in their ability to perform a task.
- How students value goals and beliefs about the importance and interest of tasks.
- Students emotional reaction to tasks given.
The word motivation means “to move” and is derived from the Latin verb movere. Motivation includes goal setting, self-efficacy, and self-regulation. It is situational, varies, and contextual. Motivation can be intrinsic and/or extrinsic.
The important takeaway for this week is:
Possessing the skills to perform school tasks is insufficient; these skills must also be coupled with the necessary motivation to regulate cognition and effort. Likewise, motivation alone, without the necessary skills to perform the school related tasks, is also insufficient.
More on this next week!